Muhajirs and MQM: Grandchildren of the mighty Mughal Empire

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Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Secularism vs. Sharia – The Muhajir Experience
    1. Secularism vs. Sharia in the Mughal Empire
    2. Secularism vs. Sharia in Karachi
  1. Muhajir Genocide – The Woes of ‘Multiculturalism’
    1. Muhajir Genocide in the Mughal Empire, 1739
    2. Muhajir Genocide in Karachi, 1965 and 1992-5
  1. Muhajir Identity during the Fragmentation of the Mughal Empire
    1. The Koh-i-Noor of the Muhajir People
    2. The Formation of Successor States: Once a Mughal, Always a Mughal
    3. Mughals (Muhajirs) and the Gujaratis
    4. Mughals (Muhajirs) and the Sindhis
    5. Mughals (Muhajirs) and the Punjabis
    6. Mughals (Muhajirs) and the Pashtuns
  1. The Indian Rebellion of 1857
    1. Muhajirs Martyrs and Punjabi-Pashtun Puppets
    2. Historical Reasons for Punjabi-Pashtun Domination in the Pakistan Armed Forces
  1. After the Mughals: A Muhajir Renaissance
    1. The Adoption of Political Secularism
    2. The Hindi-Urdu Language Dispute
    3. Aligarh Muslim University
  1. The Pakistan Movement: A Modern Muhajir Identity
    1. The All-India Muslim League
    2. The Pakistan Movement (Muhajirs) and the Sindhis
    3. The Pakistan Movement (Muhajirs) and the Punjabis
    4. The Pakistan Movement (Muhajirs) and the Pashtuns
  1. Conclusion: History Calls for the Establishment of Sindh-2
    1. Mughal Empire to MQM: An unbroken connection
    2. History Calls for the Establishment of Sindh-2

1. Introduction

We, the Muhajirs of Pakistan, are the direct descendants of the loyal subjects of the Mughal Empire and its successor states. The cultivated Muslims once found at the imperial courts of India are now to be found in the form of Pakistan’s only modern and secular political party: the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM). [Translation: United People’s Movement]

Despite the final dissolution of the Mughal Empire in 1857, the Mughal spirit stayed alive inside our hearts and souls.  We started looking East and West, and we saw a way to reconstitute our Mughal entity.  Our hope was not lost, even after 100 years of British subjugation.  Our wish was simply to live as a free people in our own land, a modern resurrection of the Mughal Empire.

In a quest to preserve – but also modernise – our inherited Mughal culture, we created Pakistan.  Inspired by the democratic ideals of the Urdu-speaking elites and thinkers, millions of Indian Muslims migrated East and West to the new state. But there was one problem. The inhabitants of the land (the Punjabis, Sindhis, and Pashtuns) did not share the secular, progressive and liberal vision of the migrants. Our problems started the day after we created Pakistan. What began as a pursuit of something akin to the ‘American dream’ became the Muhajirs’ worst nightmare.

I now present to you a decisive chronological account of Muhajir history spanning from Akbar to Altaf.

2. Muhajir’s Glorious Mughal Empire, destroyed by harsh Sharia

The Muhajirs learnt from experience that glory and wealth follows a liberal and secular legal system, and chaos follows the imposition of harsh religious laws.

2.1 Secularism vs. Sharia in the Mughal Empire

Urdu-Speaking (proto-) Muhajirs built the Taj Mahal and countless exquisite buildings and monuments; we fought and many times defeated the British invaders with generals such as Tipu Sultan; we produced some of the greatest art, music, dance, jewellery, literature and poetry the world has ever seen; and in the good times we extended liberal and secular rule which made India by far the wealthiest country on earth of its time.

Urdu Speaking Muhajirs built the Taj Mahal, the most beautiful building on earth

Urdu Speaking Muhajirs built the Taj Mahal, arguably the most beautiful building on earth.

Then we lost it all. The Emperor Aurangzeb seized power in 1658 after executing his brother Prince Dara Shikoh, the liberal eldest son and appointed successor of Emperor Shah Jahan. Aurangzeb turned away from the secular ideology of Akbar (ruled 1556-1605) which had brought glory. Between 1556 and Aurangzeb’s death in 1707, there were four Mughal Emperors (Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb).Yet after Aurangzeb, there were eleven Mughal Emperors in 53 years (1707-1760).

Akbar’s rule paved the way for pluralism, liberalism and secularism. All religions were allowed to be practised relatively freely. Akbar himself founded a syncretistic religious tradition of his own (Din-e-Elahi), seeking to combine human rationality, Sufism (Islamic mysticism), and Indic philosophies. This was certainly extraordinary for an era that saw the horrors of the Spanish Inquisition in Europe. Above all, Akbar’s government granted personal freedoms, with limited State intervention in the private lives of individuals.

Aurangzeb destroyed the Mughal Empire by imposing harsh sharia laws

Aurangzeb destroyed the Mughal Empire by imposing harsh sharia laws

In contrast to Akbar’s rule, Aurangzeb created the conditions for the destruction of the Mughal Empire with his imposition of harsh sharia. Aurangzeb’s Islamism ended up breaking the all-India economic ties that had strengthened the Mughals. His greedy successors grew up illiterate in anything except Theology, and many spent their entire time seeking hedonistic pleasure and killing anyone who challenged their rule. Aurangzeb outlawed alcohol, gambling, narcotics, music and dancing.

Secularism means defending the right of everyone to live life as they wish

Secularism means defending the right of everyone to live life as they wish

Such ‘terrorist’ behaviour led to chronic consequences. Whenever alcohol is banned, criminal networks start making money by bootlegging. Whenever gambling is banned, private gambling houses are set up by gangsters who often start bribing local law enforcement officials to keep their gambling dens open – this in turn starts corrupting the government. Whenever narcotics are banned, brutal gangs start dealing drugs by exploiting innocent children (it is, thus, better to regulate the use of hard narcotics and treat it as an illness). Whenever music and dancing is banned and men and women are kept separate, the natural desire of men and women to congregate is driven underground and vast numbers of people start living secret double lives.

Secular liberal outlook of MQM Muhajirs comes from our Mughal heritage.  These same people are our great (x10) grandparents

Secular liberal outlook of MQM Muhajirs comes from our Mughal heritage. These same people are our great (x10) grandparents

Criminal gangs became rich due to Aurangzeb’s policies. Social structures were diminished and Hindus/Sikhs were persecuted, which led to a fatal weakening of the Mughal Empire. After Aurangzeb, the Mughal economy suffered due to 3 decades of calamitous wars of succession. There were 6 Emperors in the 12 years after Aurangzeb, and there was permanent war. Mughal Armies were not being paid on time, the soldiers were being mistreated, useless sycophants were being promoted as generals, and nobody wants to fight for a greedy king.

The alternative to secularism is Taliban Jihad which wishes to destroy the Muhajirs

The alternative to secularism is harsh imposition of Sharia

2.2 Secularism vs Sharia in Karachi

In recent history, from 1947 to 1977, alcohol was legal for public consumption in all Karachi, Hyderabad and Khairpur (and banned in all other areas of Pakistan).  The Muhajir presence in these cities allowed liberal values to thrive. A blind eye was turned to narcotics, and there was little usage. Nightclubs and bars were open all over the city, and Karachiites could be served alcohol at countless street-side shops and restaurants. Entertainment was thus widely available. Horseracing, for example, took place at Karachi Racecourse and gambling was seen as a non-issue. These were the most prosperous, safest and happiest days of Karachi since 1947.

Sadiq and Mushtaq Mohammed (Muhajirs) enjoying a beer in Pakistan cricket team dressing room (1977)

Sadiq and Mushtaq Mohammed (Muhajirs) enjoying a beer in Pakistan cricket team dressing room (1976)

However, after the Sindhi supremacist leader Z.A. Bhutto banned alcohol and horseracing in Karachi, and the Punjabi Islamist Zia ul-Haq imposed further harsh sharia laws, the city immediately changed and has been deteriorating since.

Currently, the Sindh PPP-Police takes protection money from illegal alcohol shops and illegal gambling dens. Massive criminal gangs are making fortunes and killing others to keep control of their business. Drug usage and heroin addiction has exploded. Karachi was once a city in which it was unthinkable for anyone to be attacked with a gun, yet today gun crime is endemic.

Whenever harsh sharia is imposed, crime increases - or you need Religious Police to control society

Whenever harsh sharia is imposed, crime increases – or you need Religious Police to control society with an iron hand, like in Saudi Arabia and Iran today

3. Muhajir Genocide and the Woes of ‘Multiculturalism’

In the midst of the clamour on ‘British values’, and an endless ‘culture war’ in the United States between liberals and conservatives, we find Western nations cracking down on ‘multiculturalism’. This is a postmodern project in which all cultures – progressive, enlightened or backward – are deemed equal. Barbarian cultures throughout the ages have sought to pillage and slaughter richer and more civilised cultures. And the experience of the Muhajirs of the East is no different. Our people have experienced successive genocides, or ‘Operation Clean-ups’, for our self-made wealth, standing and cultural refinement.

3.1 Muhajir Genocide in the Mughal Empire, 1739

After Aurangzeb’s attempts to Islamise the Mughal Empire led to an increase in crime (see Section 2), the King of Iran, Nader Shah, decided to use this opportunity to invade the Mughal Empire to his East and weaken it, so that he could then go and attack the Turks to his West. In 1739, Nadir Shah bribed the Pashtun tribesmen to give him free passage through the Khyber Pass, and swept through the Punjab on his way to Delhi.

Decades of Infighting left Mughals so weak they were defeated in 3 hours by Persians

Decades of Infighting left Mughals so weak they were defeated in 3 hours by Persians

The Fall of Delhi in 1739 is the greatest tragedy in the history of the Muhajir people. Nadir Shah defeated the Mughals in less than 3 hours at the Battle of Karnal. The most valiant general on that day was Saadat Ali Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh, a Shia Muslim. Saadat Ali Khan was captured and killed by the Iranians. He died trying to protect our forefathers in Delhi.

Saasat ALi Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh

Saadat Ali Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh

The day after, Nadir Shah’s Iranian troops entered Delhi and began a massacre which lasted for days. Men, women and children were slaughtered without mercy. A contemporary source, the Tazkira, wrote:

“Here and there some opposition was offered, but in most places people were butchered unresistingly. The Persians laid violent hands on everything and everybody. For a long time, streets remained strewn with corpses, as the walks of a garden with dead leaves and flowers. The town was reduced to ashes.”

Nadir Shah’s Persian troops did not ask who was Shia or Sunni. They simply slaughtered every Mughal they could find, and burnt most of Delhi. Here, we find cultural affinity being of more importance than theological affinity. It is likely that MQM’s Muhajirs today are the only cultural group of Muslim heritage in the world who not divide themselves along religious or sectarian lines.

The streets of Delhi flowed with Muhajir blood

The streets of Delhi flowed with Muhajir blood

3.2 Muhajir Genocide in Karachi, 1965 and 1992-5

In Karachi’s recent history, we see a similar story repeating itself. In 1965, Pashtun terrorists, led by Gohar Ayub under the ultimate control of Ayub Khan (Sunni) and Z.A. Bhutto (Shia), massacred scores of Muhajirs and left thousands homeless. Like Nadir Shah, they did not differentiate between Sunni and Shia. Like Nadir Shah, they simply killed any Muhajir they could find. After this massacre, no Punjabi Sunni or Shia army officer is recorded to have resigned in protest, which means that they supported it. When Z.A. Bhutto put in place a quota system to expel Muhajirs from Pakistan’s Civil Service, he, again, did not make any distinction between Muhajir Sunnis and Shias, but simply expelled them all. There is no record of any Punjabi Sunni or Shia making any protest at this outrageous discrimination.

Even worse, Muhajirs were massacred in their thousands in a state-sponsored genocide known as ‘Operation Clean-up’ (1992-5). This has had a long-lasting impact on the Muhajir people and was carried out under the governments of Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. Yet again the killers did not differentiate between Shia and Sunni, despite their clear theological biases. Instead, they simply targeted any Muhajir MQM worker they could find. Nawaz Sharif is Sunni yet he had no mercy on the Sunni Muhajirs, and Benazir Bhutto was Shia, yet she had no mercy on the Muhajir Shias. Time and time again, history has shown that we Muhajirs can rely only on ourselves. Our Muhajir identity is beyond religious creed.

Punjabi/Pathan Sunnis or Shia did not lift a finger to help Muhajir Sunnis or Shia being killed in Operation Cleanup

Punjabi/Pathan Sunnis or Shia did not lift a finger to help Muhajir Sunnis or Shia being killed in Operation Cleanup

4. Muhajir Identity during the Fragmentation of the Mughal Empire

4.1 The Koh-i-Noor of the Muhajir People

After seizing Delhi in 1739, the Iranians levied a monumental fine of Rs.2 crore on the people of Delhi, of all faiths and sects. The sum was so great that there was no tax levied in Iran for 3 years afterwards. In addition, the Iranians seized the Mughal Emperor’s Peacock Throne. The Peacock Throne cost twice as much to make as the Taj Mahal, as it was fully encrusted with the biggest diamonds and rubies on earth. Today, the Peacock Throne could well have been worth more than $2 billion. (After he returned to Iran, Nader Shah was killed and the Peacock Throne was broken into pieces and lost forever.) The second greatest prize taken by Nadir Shah was the Koh-i-Noor, then the biggest diamond on earth (793 carats uncut). The most expensive diamond ever sold was the Pink Star (59 carats cut) sold for $88m in 2013. This means that the Koh-i-Noor diamond, the most legendary jewel in the history of mankind, is worth several hundred million dollars. Today the Koh-i-Noor, the prize treasure of the Muhajir people, sits in the middle of the Queen of England’s coronation crown.  (Note: there is no point in feeling especial bitterness at the actions of previous Empires.  After all, let us recognise that the Mughals themselves built an Empire which was resented by some).

The Mughal Emperor's Peacock Throne was the most glorious throne in the history of mankind

The Mughal Emperor’s Peacock Throne was the most glorious throne in the history of mankind.  Note the massive diamond at the top of the throne.

4.2 The Formation of Successor States: Once a Mughal, Always a Mughal

 Since that devastating day in 1739, the Muhajir people have not had full control of their situation. The Persian barbarian Nadir Shah left Delhi to fight the Turks and never returned to India, but the Mughal Emperors could no longer fight anyone. The Mughal Generals who had been sent to collect taxes from territories such as Oudh (Awadh), Hyderabad, and Bengal realised that the Mughal Emperors no longer had any power over them. These Generals then made themselves the Rulers of the areas where they had been sent to collect taxes. For example, Asaf Jah was a Delhi General who was being sent by the Mughal Emperor to collect taxes in Lucknow, but at the last moment he was sent to Hyderabad instead. When he was there, the Mughal Emperor was defeated and Asaf Jah made himself into the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Nawabs of Bengal (Urdu-speakers) established themselves as rulers of Bihar (an Urdu-speaking area), Orissa and Bengal (Bengali speakers).
Asaf Jah, first Nizam of Hyderabad, always remained a subject of the Mughal Emperor even though he was de facto independent

Asaf Jah, first Nizam of Hyderabad.  The Nizams always remained subjects of the Mughal Emperor even though they were de facto independent

The proto-Muhajirs of Hyderabad, Oudh (Awadh), Bengal and other Muslim Princely States still felt a de facto cultural allegiance to the now-powerless Mughal Emperor in Delhi. For this reason, these newly self-created rulers (Nawabs of Bengal, Awadh, etc.) did not declare themselves Sovereigns, even though the Mughal Emperor in Delhi had no control over them whatsoever. The Nizam of Hyderabad, for example, used to issue his own currency not in his own name, but in the name of the Mughal Emperor. This shows that, despite the fragmentation of the Mughal Empire, the Muhajir people always had a strong desire to keep thinking of themselves as one people. This Muhajir solidarity, however, did not apply to the people of Sindh, Punjab and Pakhtunistan.

Jinnah Poonja, the father of Mohamed Ali Jinnah, was a Muhajir who moved to Karachi in the 1860s.  Like today, Mughal Muhajirs never became Sindhi

Jinnah Poonja, the father of Mohamed Ali Jinnah, was a Muhajir who moved to Karachi in the 1860s. Like today, Mughal Muhajirs never became Sindhi

4.3 Mughals (Muhajirs) and the Gujaratis

Alongside the formation of Princely States, other areas fell directly into the hands of European powers: Gujarat – the birthplace of Aurangzeb himself – was for a while contested by Hindus, but was rapidly seized by the Portuguese and then the British. Due to the strong Mughal presence in Gujarat, the Gujaratis always had a deep connection with the Urdu language and the Urdu-speaking people. There are, thus, clear historical reasons for why many of Karachi’s Gujaratis (e.g. Memons) today are loyal supporters of the MQM. Indeed, Mohammed Ali Jinnah (founder of Pakistan) hailed from a Muhajir (migrant) Gujarati trading family that moved to British Karachi for economic reasons in the 1860s. If he were alive today, he would have surely allied himself with the MQM.

4.4 Mughals (Muhajirs) and the Sindhis

Lucknow 1860: Muhajirs across India built exceptional cities

Lucknow 1860: Muhajirs across India built exceptional cities.  Punjabi Muslims, Pathans and Sindhis built virtually nothing.

The Mughals had held Sindh for a few decades in the 1500/1600s and built a fortress for the first time in the area which is now Karachi. They used this fort to defend Karachi area from Portuguese attacks, as well as building the most famous remaining mosques in Sindh. However, there was nothing worth holding in Sindh, and the Mughals left the area. For much of the 1700s/1800s, Sindh was held by a collection of Amirs (local warlords). In 1783, the Talpur family came from Balochistan and conquered Sindh.  In 1843, the Talpur family later assisted the British to capture Sindh by betraying the other Sindhi Ameers, for which the British rewarded them with Khairpur State.  Today, the former Khairpur Princely State is part of Sindh Province.
In 1783, the Talpur family invaded from Balochistan and conquered Sindh

In 1783, the Talpur family invaded from Balochistan and conquered Sindh

 In terms of language, shared ties and culture, the Sindhis had no connection with the Mughals. The agricultural area was not utilised, the people were ruled savagely by the Amirs and vicious landlords (such as the Bhutto Family), barely a single building of note was constructed, and there was almost total illiteracy amongst Sindhi Muslims. The Sindhis’ jealously guarded their semi-Aboriginal culture. Even at the inception of Pakistan in 1947, observers noted that the Sindhis hated Muhajir arrivals in Sindh, and were particularly jealous of the Muhajir presence in Karachi.

Since Day 1 of Pakistan, Sindhis hated Muhajir presence in Karachi.  It is not because of anything we said or did.

Since Day 1 of Pakistan, Sindhis hated Muhajir presence in Karachi. It is not because of anything we said or did.

4.5 Mughals (Muhajirs) and the Punjabis
Shalimar Gardens in Lahore.  Mughal Muhajirs built all Lahore monuments - Punjabi Muslims built nothing. (Sikhs built  a couple of beautiful buildings too in their brief tenure of Punjab)

Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Mughal Muhajirs built all Lahore monuments – Punjabi Muslims built nothing. (Sikhs built a couple of beautiful buildings too in their brief tenure of Punjab)

Punjab had always been a Mughal colony. The Mughal Muhajirs built almost every beautiful landmark in Lahore. The Badshahi Mosque, the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, and various Mughal tombs – all were built by Urdu-speaking Muhajirs. Not a single one was built by Punjabi Muslims. After the sacking of Delhi by Nadir Shah, the Mughals lost control over the Punjab colony, and the Afghan Durrani army seized control. From that period on, the Punjabi Muslims (who were always non-Urdu-speaking) lost all connection with the Mughals, and they became even more closely related to the Pashtuns. For example, Imran Khan’s Pashtun family hails from Mianwali (Pashtunistan-Punjab border) and they migrated to Jullundur (now Indian Punjab) during this period. The Afghans had been blocked from Punjab by the Mughals for centuries, but by 1761 they controlled present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Punjab (including Kashmir) and Sindh. Although territory in this area changed hands frequently during this period, military activity was conducted only by Pashtun, Punjabi, Sindhi and Baloch speakers. During this period, there were no Urdu-speakers in the area which is today known as Pakistan.

Afghan-1772

The Punjabis had a deeply held hatred for the Mughals because they felt culturally, linguistically, and militarily inferior. This inferiority complex can be viewed in their attitude to this day. The tweet below by a Punjabi “liberal” is quite revealing. Condemning Nawaz Sharif’s acceptance of Narendra Modi’s invitation to his Delhi inauguration, Hamdani cries Nawaz Sharif was like a “small raja attending the court of the Delhi [Mughal] emperor”. This exposes centuries of inherited Punjabi hatred for the Mughal Empire. It would be unthinkable for a Muhajir to use such a phrase, because the Mughal Emperor was our Emperor, and we insisted on staying under the Mughal Emperor even when the Nawabs and Nizams of Awadh, Bengal, and Hyderabad had become de facto independent.

YLH-Delhi

 From the late 1700s to 1849, Punjab was under complete control of the Sikhs, under Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his successors. During this period, the Punjabi Muslims were treated with severity. For example, Ranjit Singh used to raze Multan to the ground every year and exact tribute from its people. He also used the Muhajir-built Badshahi Mosque as his ammunition store and stables, and the Punjabi Muslims were too scared to say a word against him.
Sikhs were even removing marble from Lahore's Badshahi Moque - Punjabi Muslims were helpless

Sikhs were even removing marble from Lahore’s Badshahi Moque – Punjabi Muslims were helpless

No doubt the Sikhs would argue that they themselves had been severely mistreated as well in the past. However, as a result of the Sikh total domination over the Punjabi Muslims, a deep hatred grew between the two.

Punjabi Muslims and Pathans were under Sikh control, so they welcomed British takeover of Punjab in 1849

Punjabi Muslims and Pathans were under Sikh control, so they welcomed British takeover of Punjab in 1849

4.6 Mughals (Muhajirs) and the Pashtuns

The power of Runjit Singh was so great, that he threatened Dost Mohammed (the Afghan King) in 1834. As a result of Ranjit Singh’s advance, Dost Mohammed fled  from Peshawar Province (what is today KPK/FATA), without even fighting the Sikh Army.  This is how KPK/FATA was lost by Afghanistan and absorbed into Punjab. For 15 years, Dost Mohammed dreamt of taking back the province of Peshawar, by far the wealthiest area of Afghanistan. However, in 1849, the British annexed Punjab (including the KPK/FATA area) and Dost Mohammed could no longer even dream of taking Peshawar back. This is how KPK/FATA ended up in Pakistan. It had always been a natural part of Afghanistan, sharing language, culture, customs, and tribal affiliation and much more with their fellow Afghans. The Pashtuns made virtually no buildings of any note, left almost no literature whatsoever, and created only a legacy of blood feuds which kept the entire Pashtun area permanently at war with itself.  There was no connection with Mughal high culture or learning. Although the Mughals had launched their invasions of India from Afghanistan centuries earlier, these connections had long been lost, and Mughals had adopted their own created language – Urdu – a completely different language to Pashto.

Runjeet Singh, who conquered Peshawar in 1834

Runjeet Singh, who conquered Peshawar in 1834

The Pashtuns looked on the Mughal as enemies, because the Mughals kept them away from looting and pillaging India. In 1849, the Sikh Empire was fragmenting internally. After the death of Runjit Singh in 1839, the Sikhs started a civil war. When the Sikhs started attacking and looting British held territory, the British were compelled to annex Punjab (including present day KPK/FATA) in 1849. The Punjabi Muslims and Pashtuns welcomed the arrival of the British as it relived them from the harsh rule of the Sikhs, who had total control and possession of Punjab/KPK/FATA area. Indeed, the Punjabis and the Pashtuns are the only communities in all of India who did not resist the British takeover at all. Even the Baloch- Sindhi tribes made a stand against the British in 1843 at the Battle of Meenee – although this pathetic effort was wiped away easily by the British, at least they tried. The Pashtuns and Punjabis had no deep intrinsic desire for freedom and autonomy, so they did not fight at all.

Peshawar-1857

Peshawar in 1857 barely comprised a few shacks

5. The Indian Rebellion of 1857

Note 1: Many brave Hindus participated in the 1857 Mutiny. However, for the purposes of this essay, I will focus on the participation of the proto-Muhajir fighters, and the fighters of present-day Pakistan.

Note 2: At that time, the British called the Sikhs “Punjabis”, and they called the Muslims in Punjab territory (then including the present-day KPK/FATA region) “Afghans”. It was only in 1901 that the British separated the Pashtun area of Punjab to create the North West Frontier Province.

The British came to India to trade, and recruited local sepoys to protect their warehouses

The British came to India to trade, and recruited local sepoys to protect their warehouses

5.1 Muhajirs Martyrs and Punjabi-Pashtun Puppets
In 1857, the British Indian Army rebelled against the British in the Delhi area, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Awadh and Bengal (Urdu-speaking parts). This was the Indian Mutiny. The events of those days shape the current government system in Pakistan to this day. Before 1857, the British recruited soldiers from all across India, Muslims and Hindus. Primary recruitment areas were Bengal (Urdu/Hindi speakers) and Northern India. However, in 1857 a violent rebellion broke out. The first action of the proto-Muhajir rebel soldiers was to reinstate the Mughal Emperor in Delhi as a full Sovereign – thus ending his status as a British puppet who was not even allowed to leave his Palace or receive any guest he wanted without British permission.
Bahadur Shah, the last Mughal Emperor, was 82 at the time of the Mutiny

Bahadur Shah, the last Mughal Emperor, was 82 at the time of the Mutiny

Muhajirs from Delhi, Bihar and the Urdu-speaking regions of Bengal, and Bhopal joined in the rebellion. The British were in total disarray. The telegraphs were cut, and after years of peace, the European soldiers were not hardened fighters. Britain was in peril of losing its prized Imperial possession, from which they were extracting monumentally colossal amounts of capital – money which was in turn being used to transform London and other British urban centres.

London's most beautiful buildings were built 1800-1850 using wealth extracted from Mughal India

London’s most beautiful buildings were built 1800-1850 using wealth extracted from Mughal India

The only reason the British held India, is because the Punjabis and Pashtuns stayed loyal to their British masters. However, even this loyalty was not out of goodwill, but spite. The Punjabi-Pashtun soldiers hated the Mughal Empire, and would rather be subjugated under the British than to see the Muhajirs living in freedom. If the Punjabi-Pashtuns had rebelled against the British, they would have certainly expelled them from India and we would have gained our freedom. As soon as the Mutiny was declared, the Punjabis and the Pashtuns rushed to join the British Army. They seized fugitive Mutineers and handed them to the British. They welcomed the British Army and officials with “great enthusiasm”. One British journalist wrote that his four Punjabi servants disappeared one morning, and by evening he discovered they had joined the British Indian Army, so they could go and kill the proto-Muhajir freedom fighters.

The British were shocked at how strongly the Punjabis (Sikh, Mulim, Pakhtun) supported them against the Mughal Muhajirs

The British were shocked at how strongly the Punjabis (Sikh, Mulim, Pakhtun) supported them against the Mughal Muhajirs

Britain had only conquered (Sikh-ruled) Punjab (including the KPK/FATA region) in 1849, so they had no idea how the Punjabi-Pashtuns would react. It became very clear that the Punjabi-Pashtuns were the most loyal servants of the British, beyond their wildest imagination:

“When once it was clear that the Punjab was not a source of danger, it became equally clear that it was a mine of strength.”

The Punjabi Muslims and Pashtuns marched to Delhi under the British, who offered terms of surrender to the Muhajir fighters on August 30 1857. The Muhajirs refused to accept the surrender of Delhi. In early September 1857, the British attacked Delhi. The Punjabi-Pashtun coalition rampaged through the streets of Delhi, killing any Muhajir they could find. The streets of Delhi were once again drenched with Muhajir blood, and they did not ask who is Sunni or Shia. Once Delhi had been captured, Punjabi-Pathans fired artillery into Muhajir neighbourhoods, raped Muhajir women, and looted as much as they could. This was among the first Operation Clean-ups of Muhajirs conducted by Punjabi and Pashtun barbarians. (See Section 3 for more information on Muhajir genocide.)

Punjabi Muslims and Pathans at the first Operation Cleanup - Delhi 1857

Punjabi Muslims and Pathans at the first Operation Cleanup – Delhi 1857

A British observer was astounded to see “Affghans” (i.e. Muslims from present-day Punjab/KPK/FATA), who had only been conquered by the British less than a decade earlier, now sitting in the palace of the Mughal Emperor, covered in Mughal (Muhajir) blood and counting what they had looted from the Mughals and their loyal subjects. Many of the Pashtun soldiers were from the Yusufzai tribe, savages from the frontiers of the Mughal territory, now frolicking in the Emperor’s Durbar. There could be no greater disgrace in Muhajir history than this sight.

Capture of the Mughal Emperor and his two grandsons, Prince Mirza Mughal and Prince Bakht

Capture of the Mughal Emperor and his two grandsons, Prince Mirza Mughal and Prince Bakht

On 20 September 1857, the British, along with Punjabi-Pashtun coalition troops, captured the Mughal Emperor and his two grandsons, Princes Mirza Mughal and Bakht Khan. They sliced off the heads of the two princes and presented them to the old Mughal Emperor on a plate. After the Fall of Delhi in 1739, this was the most devastating day in Muhajir history, and it signified the end of the Mughal Emperors who had ruled India for centuries. The Emperor was then sent into exile in Rangoon (Burma), where he died a broken man.  Whilst the Punjabis and Pathans celebrated in the Red Fort, the Muhajir heart was broken.

After 1857, the British kept their India Army almost entirely Sikhs, Punjabi Muslims, Pakhtuns and Nepali Gurkhas

After 1857, the British kept their India Army almost entirely Sikhs, Punjabi Muslims, Pakhtuns and Nepali Gurkhas

After the Mutiny, the British expelled all the Mutineers from UP, Awadh, Bengal, etc., and decided that they only wanted the loyal Punjabis (i.e. Sikhs, Punjabi Muslims, and Pashtuns) and Ghurkhas in the new British India Army. The Sikhs were considered the best disciplined of these soldiers. The Punjabi Muslims were seen as least hostile to the British, primarily because the British had just freed them from Sikh control. The Pashtun soldiers were considered very brave, and it was noted that they hated other Indians, including Muhajirs.  The British would have kept more Pashtun soldiers, but they were worried that the only external threat to India came from Pashtun tribesmen, so they did not want to keep too many Pashtuns.

Punjabi dominance of Pakistan Armed Forces today dates back to Punjabi loyalty to the British in 1857

Punjabi dominance of Pakistan Armed Forces today dates back to Punjabi loyalty to the British in 1857

5.2 Historical Reasons for Punjabi-Pashtun Domination in the Pakistan Armed Forces

Ater the Mutiny was crushed using Punjabi/Pathan troops, the British executed Muhajir freedom fighters

“Blown from the Guns”: After the Mutiny was crushed using Punjabi/Pathan troops, the British executed Muhajir freedom fighters

From the above, it is clear that the Muslims in the British India Army were all Punjabi Muslims and Pashtuns. This carried on until the independence of India/Pakistan in 1947, and it is the reason why the Pakistan Army to this day is almost entirely composed of Punjabi Muslims and Pashtuns. The British called them “Martial Races”, but in fact they were the only communities in India not to resist the British invasion. They remained staunchly loyal to the British during the Mutiny and showed their enthusiasm to sack Delhi and massacre the Muhajirs. On the other hand, the only Indian Muslims to provide significant resistance to the British, from Delhi to Bengal to Mysore (Tipu Sultan) to Lucknow to Bhopal, were the Urdu-speaking Muslims – now dubbed the Muhajirs. Because Muhajirs had fought the British wherever and whenever we could, the British kept us out of their Army.

Today, Pakistan's Punjabi/Pathan buraucracy/military class wishes to flood Karachi with refugees from Jihad-infected Pathan areas, bringing terrorism & crime with them

Today, Pakistan’s Punjabi/Pathan buraucracy/military class wishes to flood Muhajir Karachi with refugees from Jihad-infected Pathan areas, bringing intolerance, terrorism & crime with them.  The FATA barbarians blasted ANP (a secular Pakhtun party) out of Karachi

6. After the Mughals: A Muhajir Renaissance

6.1 The Adoption of Political Secularism

The longing of the proto-Muhajirs to liberate themselves from the British did not mean that they wished to return to absolute monarchy system under the Mughals – they recognised that absolute monarchy system was what had made them weak in the first place. Instead, during the Mutiny, they tried to institute a primitive form of democratic government with the Mughal Emperor there as a figurehead. The Mutineers didn’t take orders from the 80-year-old Mughal Emperor. They did not reintroduce any old Arabic/Persian titles – instead they used English titles. Just like under the British system, petitions were officially presented to the Emperor, but decisions were made by the “Court”, a collection of Mutiny commanders and bureaucrats, led by the “Seketur” (Secretary). The Mutineers even filled the British Sergeant-Major positions vacated by the expelled British. The Mutineers did not select a “Mahomedan” government. As a historian of Muhajir history, it is clear that this was the beginning of a brand of Muhajir secularism, similar to the secularism of our Jewish/Israeli friends. The MQM’s political thought is certainly a continuation and further evolution of this trend. Although these Mughal Muhajirs failed in their rebellion, their modern approach to government gave birth to Quaid Altaf Hussain’s philosophy of ‘Realism and Practicalism’.

From May-Sept 1957, the Mutineers introduced a modernised government system - not absolute monarchy

From May-Sept 1957, the Mutineers introduced a modernised government system – not absolute monarchy

What the Muhajirs did after the Indian Mutiny was revealing of the depth and resilience of the Mughal character. Our Mughal Empire was dissolved, and the British were very angry at the Muhajirs for being the ringleaders of the Mutiny, and they had a preference for the Hindus. It is also the case that the Hindus were better educated, wealthier, and more hard-working. The Mughal education system had focused on Theology, Urdu, Arabic, and ignored Maths and Science. This was because fundamentalist Mullahs, such as Shah Waliullah Dehlvi and Ahmad Sirhindi, influenced the Mughals to believe that these subjects were against Islam.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (centre) assisted by Syed Mehdi Ali (left) and Syed Mahmood (left) founded Aligarh University

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (centre) assisted by Syed Mehdi Ali (left) and Syed Mahmood (left) founded Aligarh University

Enter Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) was born in Delhi into a noble Mughal family, yet joined the British Indian Civil Service. He was one of the earliest Indian Muslims to learn English. Sir Syed observed the Indian Mutiny first hand. He rejected the widespread British theory that the Muhajir noble had started the Mutiny in order to restore the Mughal Emperor to absolute monarchy. Instead, he suggested that the Muhajirs felt threatened by the aggressive British expansion and their lack of tolerance for their Urdu-speaking culture.

Mirza Ghalib wrote a poem for Sir Syed, to convince him to avoid going back to the old Mughal superstitions, and instead focus on English-style scientific progress

Mirza Ghalib wrote a poem for Sir Syed, to convince him to avoid going back to the old Mughal superstitions, and instead focus on English-style scientific progress

Before the Mutiny, Sir Syed had tended towards glorifying the Mughal culture. However, Mirza Ghalib, the legendary poet, convinced him to recognise that the Mughal system had created a society that was incapable of productivity required to succeed in the modern world.  Sir Syed came to the conclusion that, in order to progress, the Muhajirs needed to adopt advanced educational systems and a more scientific way of thinking.

6.2 The Hindi-Urdu Language Dispute

The Muhajirs were shell-shocked after the 1857 Mutiny, and the harsh British reaction afterwards. Sir Syed galvanised them to protect their rights, and to ensure the continuation of the Muhajir Mughal people. The first struggle in this regard was the preservation of the Urdu language. The Hindu-Urdu struggle of the mid- to late-19th century was understandable from both perspectives. The Hindus felt liberated by the British after centuries of Mughal rule. They wanted to express themselves in their own Hindu languages, as was their right.  The Hindus argued that they were in the majority, and it should be their language which should be the official language, and this is not an entirely unreasonable perspective. However, the Muhajirs felt that their culture would be lost if they could no longer communicate in Urdu. The Urdu language shaped our culture, customs and outlook on life and being forced to use Hindi was unacceptable.

In 1870, Sir Syed launched "The Muhammadan Social Reformer" to spread liberal secularism across the Muhajirs

In 1870, Sir Syed launched “The Muhammadan Social Reformer” to spread liberal secularism across the Muhajirs

The Hindu-Urdu struggle showed the Muhajir people that they were still one people after the last Mughal Emperor had disappeared. However, the Punjabis, Pashtuns and Sindhis did not participate in the struggle for the Urdu language at all. Their languages (Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi) had minimal amounts of literature or written poetry, yet they did not identify with Urdu whatsoever. It was their right to prefer their own language, of course. Before the creation of Pakistan in 1947, Urdu was spoken by hardly anyone in the region which is today Pakistan. Urdu has become the language by which Punjabis, Pathans and Sindhis communicate with each other, only because of the presence of the 10% Muhajir population of Pakistan.

6.3 Aligarh Muslim University

Logo of Aligarh Muslim University, which produced a class of liberal secular Muhajirs who went on to launch the Pakistan Movement

Logo of Aligarh Muslim University, which produced a class of liberal secular Muhajirs who went on to launch the Pakistan Movement

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan campaigned amongst the Muhajirs for support to create a new university, to create a class of liberal, secular Indian Muslims. First, he created the Scientific Society of Aligarh, modelled after the Royal Society of the UK, a premier scientific association. During all this time, Sir Syed was criticised for promoting un-Islamic ideas by the Mullahs – many called him a kafir (infidel). However, due to British secular rule, nobody was able to threaten him or prevent his work. Sir Syed’s years of organisation building, travelling around and meeting leading Muhajirs, as well as promoting the Urdu language, paid off: the Foundation Stone of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College (later renamed Aligarh University) was laid in 1875. Sir Syed was heavily opposed by the same Mullahs who later opposed Jinnah and the AIML for campaigning to create Pakistan.

At independence, Muhajir AIML appointed Mandal (Hindu) as Law Minister and Zafrullah (Ahmadi) as Foreign Secretary

At independence, Muhajir AIML appointed Mandal (Hindu) as Law Minister and Zafrullah (Ahmadi) as Foreign Secretary

Just like Jinnah appointed a Hindu (J. Mandal) as the first Law Minister of Pakistan, and an Ahmadi (Zafrullah Khan) as the first Foreign Minister, Sir Syed made sure to emphasise the MAO College was not a Jihadi institution. The first Chancellor of MAO College was an unveiled Muslim woman (the Begum of Bhopal) – something unthinkable for Muslim society at that time. The first Principal (in 1883) was Theodore Beck, a 24-year old British scholar.

The Begum of Bhopal, 1872

The Begum of Bhopal, 1872

MAO College produced a broad class of educated Muslims, who then realised that, were the British ever to leave India, they would be overwhelmed by the better educated and far more numerous Hindus. The Muhajirs created All-India Muslim League, to campaign to preserve their rights as a minority in India.  This urge was a direct continuation of the desire of the Mughal Muhajir people to continue to express their identity as a unique community.  It was nothing to do with a desire to create a new Jihadi state. This can be seen by the leaders of the AIML, as well as the fact that the bulk of the AIML intelligentsia were Aligarh University graduates.

Aga Khan III, the first President of the All-India Muslim League, at the Ascot Horse Races

Aga Khan III, an Old Etonian and gradute of Cambridge University, was the first President of the All-India Muslim League. (Pictured at the Ascot Horse Races)

7. The Pakistan Movement: A Modern Muhajir Identity

7.1 The All-India Muslim League

The AIML was founded in Lucknow in 1906 by a group of Indian Muslims. The first President was Aga Khan III, an Old Etonian and graduate of Cambridge University, and Head of the Shia Ismaili sect, who led a historic delegation to Lord Minto (Viceroy) which established the principle of separate Hindu/Muslim electorates. Jinnah, a pork-eating and alcohol-drinking unobservant Shia Muslim (Ithna Ishari sect) lawyer from Bombay, joined AIML in 1920. The AIML existed only because of the support of millions of “Muhajirs”.

The Muhajirs had no problem with Jinnah's eating pork and drinking alcohol, but the Mullahs called him "Kafir-e-Azam" because of it

The Muhajirs had no problem with Jinnah’s eating pork and drinking alcohol, but the Mullahs called him “Kafir-e-Azam” (Infidel of the State) because of it

It should be noted that Jinnah’s lack of religious observance was well known in society. His wife, born a Parsee, was renowned for wearing the shortest dresses in India. However, the Muhajirs simply did not care. Jinnah was very close to Muhajirs such as the Raja of Mahmudabad, a religious man of the Shia sect. In fact, the Raja was one of Jinnah’s biggest financial supporters.

Lal Qilla: MQM meeting ground at Karachi HQ, named after the Mughal Emperor's Palace

Lal Qilla: MQM meeting ground at Karachi HQ, named after the Mughal Emperor’s Palace

However, as I have explained in the article entitled: “Without Muhajirs, Pakistan would not exist“, the Muhajirs’ desire to protect their rights as a community was not shared by the Punjabis, Sindhis or Pashtuns. In 1937, Jinnah/AIML achieved massive success amongst the Muhajirs: the AIML won 106 seats, making it the 2nd biggest all-India party after Nehru’s Congress Party. However, AIML was totally rejected in Punjab (2/175 seats, both Ahmadis), Sindh (0/60 seats) and NWFP (0/50 seats). This made perfect sense, given the historical hatred of the Punjabis and Pashtuns for the Muhajir Mughal Empire. It didn’t matter what Jinnah said or did, just like it makes no difference what Altaf Hussain says or does. Jinnah won zero seats in these areas for exactly the same reason that Altaf Hussain and MQM win zero Pakistan National Assembly seats in these areas today.

7.2 The Pakistan Movement (Muhajirs) and the Sindhis

Sindhi Hindus had a monopoly on finance and commerce in Sindh

Sindhi Hindus had a monopoly on finance and commerce in Sindh

The Sindhi Muslims realised that if they joined the Pakistan movement, they could expel the Sindhi Hindus who controlled the entire Sindh economy, and become the masters of Sindh.  Today, Sindhi overlords such as the Bhutto family behave like the Ameers of Sindh before the British conquest.  They would not have such powers if Sindh had remained within India – the Sindhi Muslims would have been under the total economic and security control of the Hindus.

7.3 The Pakistan Movement (Muhajirs) and the Punjabis

Punjabis hate Urdu and Muhajir presence in Pakistan, yet Punjabi is a semi-developed language written almost entirely in Hindu text they cannot themselves read

Punjabis hate Urdu and Muhajir presence in Pakistan, yet Punjabi is a language written almost entirely in Hindu text they cannot themselves read

After 1937, the Punjabi Muslims realised that if they joined the Pakistan movement, they could expel the Sikhs and steal all their land. The Partition enabled the Punjabi Army officers to have their own army; otherwise they would have been a minority in the Indian army. The most powerful Punjabis stole the best land, and gave plenty of small shareholdings to tens of thousands of Punjabis, so they all got a good deal out of Partition. They soon moved the capital of Pakistan to northern Punjab, so that today almost the entire higher echelon of Pakistan’s Civil Service is Punjabi. Many Punjabis hate the Urdu language to this day, and refuse to allow their children to speak Urdu at home. Other Punjabis are embarrassed by their own culture and heritage so force each other to speak in Urdu, whilst at the same time oppressing the creators and sustainers of the Urdu language (the Muhajirs).

Christians were heavily persecuted in Punjab since independence.  Punjabi Muslims came and seized Sikh lands - none went to Christians.

Christians were heavily persecuted in Punjab since independence. Punjabi Muslims came and seized Sikh lands – none went to Christians.

7.4 The Pakistan Movement (Muhajirs) and the Pashtuns

The Pashtuns did not want to join Pakistan at all because, led by Pashtun nationalist Bacha Khan, they hated the Punjabis and did not want to be used as cannon fodder and strategic depth experiments, which is exactly what happened to them.  For more detailed background on Bacha Khan’s principled opposition to Pakistan, read my article: “Bacha Khan Baba: Pakhtuns first, Pakistan last”

 

8. Conclusion: History Calls for the Establishment of Sindh-2

8.1 Mughal Empire to MQM: An unbroken connection

There is a direct, unbroken link between the Mughals and the MQM Muhajirs

There is a direct, unbroken link between the Mughals and the MQM Muhajirs

When the Mughal Empire broke up in 1738, the Muhajirs in the Nawab and Nizam territories demanded to remain Mughal citizens.  When the Mughal Empire was dissolved in 1857, the Muhajirs began a renaissance and transformed towards becoming a modern, secular, liberal, scientific-oriented people.  When the British were leaving, the Muhajirs agitated for a separate state, even when the Punjabis/Sindhis/Pathans were totally opposed to Jinnah/AIML.  When the Muhajirs moved to Pakistan, we were the only community that did not create any ethnic-based party.  When we realised that discrimination against us would continue, Altaf Hussain bhai emerged from within us and founded MQM.  Altaf Hussain received overwhelming support from the Muhajir people.  This is the unbroken link between the Mughal Empire and MQM.

Altaf Hussain tapped into the Muhajir consciousness and received overwhelming support for his message

Altaf Hussain tapped into the Muhajir consciousness and received overwhelming support for his message

8.2 History calls for the Establishment of Sindh-2

The Muhajirs, the descendants of the Mughals, came to Pakistan and moved almost entirely to Karachi and nearby towns. Although we came from all over present-day India, we have united as one people, under one language, and we overwhelmingly support the MQM. This is a direct legacy of the Mughal Empire.

Now our objective is to achieve the creation of a separate province in Pakistan, Sindh-2, so that we will no longer be governed by the Sindhis who exhibit an unguarded hatred of us.  Muhajirs are excluded from the Karachi Police, Sindh Civil Service. Karachi provides 94% of Sindh taxes and gets hardly anything back. We have no control over our education system, infrastructure, healthcare system, power/energy sector, and the results are plain for anyone to see. Due to ancient hatreds and Sindhi/Punjabi mismanagement, we are being held back from achieving our tremendous potential as a people.

Sindhis and Punjabis want Muhajirs out of Pakistan

Sindhis and Punjabis want Muhajirs out of Pakistan

In order to prosper, we must look into our history and see what led to our successes and failures. Whenever, Muhajirs drifted (for example, under Aurangzeb) towards sharia rule, we failed. Whenever we held together with a secular, liberal outlook, we succeeded. Those who hate Muhajirs have never distinguished between Muhajir Sunnis or Shias – a Muhajir is a Muhajir. We are one. Any Muhajir who expects their co-sects to assist them will be proven to be wrong, as history has shown from 1739 to the present day.

The last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah, in exile in Rangoon, wrote a poem in which he wept that he had not even two square yards of his own to bury himself:

 

kitnā hé bad-naseeb Zafar

dafn ke liye do gaz zamīn bhī na milī kū-e-yār méń

 

Translation:

Look how ill-fated Zafar is

He does not even have two square yards to bury himself in the land of his loved ones

 

We Muhajirs have travelled from the shattered Mughal Empire to create our own homeland in Pakistan. As has always been the case throughout history, we have been treated with hatred by the other non-Mughal ethnic groups of Pakistan. But what we have is our only 2 Gazz left. And yet the barbarians threaten us once more, as the Taliban are setting up bases in Karachi, with the full support of the Sindhi-Punjabi establishment.

TTP are penetrating Karachi.  Unlike Baloch separatists, no TTP are being killed by Pakistan security forces in urban areas

Taliban are penetrating Karachi. Pakistan security forces (Punjabi Rangers, Sindhi PPP-Police) are taking no action against Karachi Taliban

Pakistan, in Muhajir eyes, was meant to be created as a homeland for all the Muslims of India.  However, the Punjabi, Sindhi and Pathan inhabitants of the land did not share this view.  Even in 1950, 3 years after parrtition, more than 3,000 Muhajirs were crossing from India into Sindh every day.  This is a rate of over 1 million per year.  The non-Muhajirs were alarmed at this, so they shut down the border.  The Sindhis wanted Pakistan only to remove the dominant Sindhi Hindus, but part of the bargain was that Muhajirs would come in.  The Sindhi dream is now to remove the Muhajirs.

Sindhis and Punjabis did not want more Muhajirs in Pakistan so the closed the border, when over 3,000 were coming in per day

Sindhis and Punjabis did not want more Muhajirs in Pakistan so the closed the border, when over 3,000 were coming in per day

History is repeating itself. Just as we were threatened in the past, we are being threatened now. I know that, following the secular formula set down by the MQM’s founder and leader Altaf Hussain, we will achieve our aim of autonomy in the Sindh-2 province. If we truly wish for Sindh-2, it is not a dream.

MQM's Philosophy of Realism and Practicalism is the key to success

MQM’s Philosophy of Realism and Practicalism is the key to success

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6 responses to “Muhajirs and MQM: Grandchildren of the mighty Mughal Empire

  1. All i want to say that the above Article is a murder of history and nothing else. It should be taken as a satire. There was No such thing as Urdu language in the Mughal empire. Urdu is a recent language of the 18th century. Mughals never ever spoke any Urdu language.

    Also Sikh empire have Punjabi Muslim Misls ( Groups ) too. Tribes like Awans, Abbasis and Jutts always had land holdings in Punjab even when Mughals reached this place and no Sikhs existed here. Ghakkars have their own unique history. It is clearly written in the memoirs of the Babur as well.
    Also a small note to the Author that Sikh religion is a recent religion as well and during the formative years of Mughal empire there was no such thing as Sikh religion. Sikhs are ethnically Punjabis like Punjabi Muslims, Hindus or others and that point is somehow obscured or not fully understood in the above article.
    Last but not least. The Sufi ideology is around 700 years older than the first writing in urdu language. Sufi ideologies of Baba Farid in Punjab existed even in the 11th century and Mughals just learnt from it later.

  2. mughal were uzbeks and urdu is language of 18 century no history nothing it is shit language hindi is better than urdu

  3. Jinnah wasn’t really Muhajir, he was born in Karachi before Pakistan was even formed and he is an ethnic Gujarati -culturally and linguistically distinct from Urdu-speakers from North/central India, they have culturally and linguistically more in common with Sindhis than with Urdu-speakers and even their way of life and entreprenurial spirit is closer to that of Sindhis, more importantly Gujarat was part of the rich Indus valley civilization where as UP/Bihar were part of the Gangetic civilization, so culturally and historically they are distinct and Indus and Gangetic people have differing personalities, so your lame attempts at claiming is quite humiliating for your party.

  4. It’s pretty hilarious you guys claim to be heirs of the Mughals and their descendants when they in reality look nothing like Muhajirs people =-they were a Persianized Turkic people not Indic converts with a little foreign ancestry.

    You love glorifying the Mughals but this is what Babur -the founder of the Mughal empire wrote about Hindustan in his Tuzk-e-Babri
    “Hindustan is a country of few charms. There are no good-looking people, there is no social intercourse, no receiving or paying of visits, no genius or manners. In its handicrafts there is no form or symmetry, method or quality. There are no good horses, no good dogs, no grapes, musk-melons or first-rate fruits, no ice or cold water, no good bread or food cooked in the bazaars, no hot baths, no colleges, no candles, torches or candlesticks.”

    He was racist invader who persecuted your ancestors.

  5. long live urduspeaking…. iltaf husssain is the most atractive leader inpakistan…this nation (urdu speaking) is sub group of turkic nations…URDU is a turkic world..iltaf hussain baig has turkic blood ..turkistan or turanistan is the mother land of this nation..not arab or ajam…long live about 222millions turkic people(uzbek hazara kazakh kyrgyz tatarrissian azeri turkmen uygur turkish mughalnation(urduspeaking) etc)…mughal is title for turkic people or turkistani turani land, givin to them by native or western nations due to their superior civilization …long ..khagan khan changiz khan bahadur(R.A) and sahib-e-kiran amir temur(r.a)…long live M Q M………

    • long live MQM…mirza usman baig kassar(barlas borjigin turk)from chakwal punjab …a admire of ayaz amir kassar (ex MNA ,english columnist”dawn”)….

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