I am a descendant of Muhajirs who migrated from India to Karachi. My articles, in no particular chronological order, seek to examine a wide range of factors which led Indian Muslims (from what is today India) to agitate for a separate Muslim nation.
Specifically, I will examine the historical factors which led Muslims in what is today Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, NWFP/KPK) to be considerably less enthusiastic for the creation of Pakistan, and adopt a generally antagonistic attitude towards Indian Muslims who migrated from India to Pakistan.
The All Pakistan Muhajir Students Organisation (APMSO) was founded in 1978 by Altaf Hussain, a lower-middle class Pharmacology student. This student organisation grew into Muhajir Qaumi Movement (MQM), a fully fledged political party set up to represent Muhajirs, who were subject to ethnic quota systems designed to exclude them from educational institutions, as well as systematically excluded from virtually all levels of government service.
MQM established itself as a political party with a series of massive rallies (e.g. Nishtar Park in 1986), and subsequently by winning virtually all electoral seats in which Muhajirs formed the bulk of voters. Such overwhelming support wasn’t due solely to the events of the decade or so preceding it. The common understanding and association of Muhajirs is based on a shared history, sometimes glorious, sometimes regrettable, spanning centuries.
Covering 200 years of history, from Tipu Sultan to the 1972 Sindhi-Urdu language riots, from Aligarh University to General Zia, this is the history of the factors leading to the creation of MQM (originally APMSO) in 1978.